Installation of Pargyline, a LSD1 Inhibitor, in the HDAC Inhibitory Template Culminated in the Identification of a Tractable Antiprostate Cancer Agent

Pragmatic insertion of pargyline, a LSD1 inhibitor, as a surface recognition part in the HDAC inhibitory pharmacophore was planned in pursuit of furnishing potent antiprostate cancer agents.
Resultantly, compound <b>14</b> elicited magnificent cell growth inhibitory effects against the PC-3 and DU-145 cell lines and led to remarkable suppression of tumor growth in human prostate PC-3 and DU-145 xenograft nude mouse models.
The outcome of the enzymatic assays ascertained that the substantial antiproliferative effects of compound <b>14</b> were mediated through HDAC6 isoform inhibition as well as selective MAO-A and LSD1 inhibition. Moreover, the signatory feature of LSD1 inhibition by <b>14</b> in the context of H3K4ME2 accumulation was clearly evident from the results of western blot analysis.
Gratifyingly, hydroxamic acid <b>14</b> demonstrates good human hepatocytic stability and good oral bioavailability in rats and exhibits enough promise to emerge as a therapeutic for the treatment of prostate cancer in the near future.

Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Deficiency Modifies the Effects of Fluoxetine and Pargyline on the Behavior, 5-HT- and BDNF-Systems in the Brain of Zebrafish ( Danio rerio)

The mechanisms of resistance to antidepressant drugs is a key and still unresolved problem of psychopharmacology. Serotonin (5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play a key role in the therapeutic effect of many antidepressants.
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT synthesis in the brain. We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a promising model organism in order to elucidate the effect of TPH2 deficiency caused by p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) on the alterations in behavior and expression of 5-HT-related (Tph2Slc6a4bMaoHtr1aaHtr2aa) and BDNF-related (CrebBdnfNtrk2aNgfra) genes in the brain after prolonged treatment with two antidepressants, inhibitors of 5-HT reuptake (fluoxetine) and oxidation (pargyline).
In one experiment, zebrafish were treated for 72 h with 0.2 mg/L fluoxetine, 2 mg/L pCPA, or the drugs combination. In another experiment, zebrafish were treated for 72 h with 0.5 mg/L pargyline, 2 mg/L pCPA, or the drugs combination.
Behavior was studied in the novel tank diving test, mRNA levels were assayed by qPCR, 5-HT and its metabolite concentrations were measured by HPLC.
The effects of interaction between pCPA and the drugs on zebrafish behavior were observed: pCPA attenuated “surface dwelling” induced by the drugs. Fluoxetine decreased mRNA levels of Tph2 and Htr2aa genes, while pargyline decreased mRNA levels of Slc6a4b and Htr1aa genes.
Pargyline reduced CrebBdnf and Ntrk2a genes mRNA concentration only in the zebrafish treated with pCPA. The results show that the disruption of the TPH2 function can cause a refractory to antidepressant treatment.

Decrease in the Activity of Striatal-Enriched Protein-Tyrosine-Phosphatase (STEP) in the Brain of Danio rerio Treated with p-Chlorophenylalanine and Pargyline

Fundamental neurophysiological processes are often studied using Danio rerio fish as a model. A selective inhibitor of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) reduces serotonin metabolism in the D. rerio brain. Both STEP and serotonin are involved in the development of neurodegenerative behavioral disorders.
Reduction or elevation of the serotonin level in the brain of mice caused by the administration of p-chlorophenylalanine or pargyline, respectively, results in a decrease in the level of ptpn5 mRNA in the striatum, ptpn5 being the gene encoding STEP. However, it has not been established whether this occurs in other organisms.
We studied the effect of inhibitors of synthesis (p-chlorophenylalanine) and degradation (pargyline) of serotonin on the expression of the ptpn5 gene and the activity of STEP in the brain of D. rerio.
The fish were placed in water containing p-chlorophenylalanine (2 mg/L) or pargyline (0.5 mg/L) for 72 hours, and control subjects were kept in aquarium water. The p-chlorophenylalanine treatment decreased the serotonin level in the brain fourfold, whereas pargyline increased the level of this transmitter sixfold.
Both p-chlorophenylalanine and pargyline decrease STEP activity in the D. rerio brain, without affecting the level of the ptpn5 mRNA gene. Thus, interaction between STEP and the serotonin system is observed in both mammals and fish, which indicates the similarity of the regulation processes in vertebrates.

Design, synthesis and evaluation of coumarin-pargyline hybrids as novel dual inhibitors of monoamine oxidases and amyloid-β aggregation for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

A series of coumarin-pargyline hybrids (4a-x) have been designed, synthesized and evaluated as novel dual inhibitors of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Most of the compounds exhibited a potent ability to inhibit amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation and monoamine oxidases.
In particular, compound 4x exhibited remarkable inhibitory activities against monoamine oxidases (IC50, 0.027 ± 0.004 μM for MAO-B; 3.275 ± 0.040 μM for MAO-A) and Aβ1-42 aggregation (54.0 ± 1.1%, 25 μM). Moreover, compound 4x showed low toxicity according to in vitro cell toxicity test.
The results of the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for blood-brain barrier indicated that compound 4x would be potent to cross the blood-brain barrier. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that compound 4x was an effective and promising candidate for AD therapy.

Inhibition of LSD1 by Pargyline inhibited process of EMT and delayed progression of prostate cancer in vivo.

Recently, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) was identified as the first histone demethylase. LSD1 interacted with androgen receptor (AR) and promoted androgen-dependent transcription of target genes, such as PSA, by ligand-induced demethylation of mono- and dimethylated histone H3 at Lys 9 (H3K9).
Meanwhile, the phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) had received considerable attention in tumor recurrence and metastasis.
This study examined the effect of Pargyline (an inhibitor of LSD1) on the process of EMT in vitro and in vivo. SCID mice were injected subcutaneously with LNCap cells. Pargyline was given intraperitoneally or not after castration (implemented with Bilateral orchidectomy), then PSA levels in serum and tumor were determined to assess time to androgen-independent progression. The results showed that LSD1 expression was up-regulated when PCa progressed to Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC).
Pargyline reduced LNCap cells migration and invasion ability, and inhibited the process of EMT by up-regulating expression of E-cadherin, and down-regulating expressions of N-cadherin and Vimentin in vitro and in vivo. Although,
Pargyline did not change the level of AR, it reduced PSA expression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Pargyline delayed prostate cancer transition from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent state (CRPC).
These findings indicated that inhibition of LSD1 might be a promise adjunctive therapy with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer.

Effects of the neurotoxin MPTP and pargyline protection on extracellular energy metabolites and dopamine levels in the striatum of freely moving rats.

The neurotoxin MPTP is known to induce dopamine release and depletion of ATP in the striatum of rats.
Therefore, we studied the changes induced by MPTP and pargyline protection both on striatal dopamine release and on extracellular energy metabolites in freely moving rats, using dual asymmetric-flow microdialysis.
A dual microdialysis probe was inserted in the right striatum of rats. MPTP (25mg/kg, 15mg/kg, 10mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered for three consecutive days. MAO-B inhibitor pargyline (15mg/kg) was systemically administered before neurotoxin administration. The first MPTP dose induced an increase in dialysate dopamine and a decrease of DOPAC levels in striatal dialysate.


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After the first neurotoxin administration, increases in striatal glucose, lactate, pyruvate, lactate/pyruvate (L/P) and lactate/glucose (L/G) ratios were observed. Subsequent MPTP administrations showed a progressive reduction of dopamine, glucose and pyruvate levels with a concomitant further increase in lactate levels and L/P and L/G ratios. At day 1, pargyline pre-treatment attenuated the MPTP-induced changes in all studied analytes.
Starting from day 2, pargyline prevented the depletion of dopamine, glucose and pyruvate while reduced the increase of lactate, L/P ratio and L/G ratio. These in vivo results suggest a pargyline neuroprotection role against the MPTP-induced energetic impairment consequent to mitochondrial damage. This neuroprotective effect was confirmed by TH immunostaining of the substantia nigra.

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