Risk Assessment of Caffeine and Epigallocatechin Gallate in Coffee Leaf Tea

Coffee leaf tea is prepared as an infusion of dried leaves of Coffea spp. in hot water. It is a traditional beverage in some coffee-producing countries and has been authorized in 2020 within the European Union (EU) according to its novel food regulation.
This article reviews current knowledge on the safety of coffee leaf tea. From the various ingredients contained in coffee leaves, only two were highlighted as possibly hazardous to human health, namely, caffeine and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), with maximum limits implemented in EU legislation, which is why this article focuses on these two substances.
While the caffeine content is comparable to that of roasted coffee beans and subject to strong fluctuations in relation to the age of the leaves, climate, coffee species, and variety, a maximum of 1-3 cups per day may be recommended. The EGCG content is typically absent or below the intake of 800 mg/day classified as hepatotoxic by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), so this compound is suggested as toxicologically uncritical.
Depending on selection and processing (age of the leaves, drying, fermentation, roasting, etc.), coffee leaf tea may exhibit a wide variety of flavors, and its full potential is currently almost unexplored. As a coffee by-product, it is certainly interesting tooperatiebrp.nl/wp-admin/post.php?post=1165&action=edit increase the income of coffee farmers.
Our review has shown that coffee leaf tea is not assumed to exhibit risks for the consumer, apart from the well-known risk of caffeine inherent to all coffee-related beverages. This conclusion is corroborated by the history of its safe use in several countries around the world.

Evaluating the Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on HIF-1α Protein and RORC Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the chronic inflammation of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and autoimmune disease. MS is most widely considered to be mediated by the activation of myelin-specific T CD4+ cells as well as TH1 and TH17 cells. TH17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of MS in various manners. HIF-1α and RORC are required for the natural differentiation of TH17; they are essential transcription factors for the evolution of TH17 cells. Numerous studies indicated that Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) presents immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effects of EGCG on normoxic HIF-1α and RORC2 expression in PBMCs among MS patients.
Methods: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood of new cases of MS. The cells were cultured in the presence of a different concentration of EGCG (25, 50,100μM) for 18 and 48 hours. Next, HIF-1α and RORC2 level expressions were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Real-Time PCR, respectively.
Results: The results showed that EGCG significantly decreased RORC2 gene expression. EGCG did not affect the level of HIF-1α.
Conclusion: However, EGCG did not influence the level of HIF-1α. Our present data has led us to conclude that EGCG could be considered as an anti-inflammatory agent may serve as an achievable therapeutic agent for MS.
Keywords: Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG); Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1-Alpha (HIF-1α); Multiple Sclerosis; RORC2.
Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the chronic inflammation of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and autoimmune disease. MS is most widely considered to be mediated by the activation of myelin-specific T CD4+ cells as well as TH1 and TH17 cells. TH17 cells are involved in the pathogenesis of MS in various manners. HIF-1α and RORC are required for the natural differentiation of TH17; they are essential transcription factors for the evolution of TH17 cells.
Numerous studies indicated that Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) presents immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effects of EGCG on normoxic HIF-1α and RORC2 expression in PBMCs among MS patients.
Methods: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood of new cases of MS. The cells were cultured in the presence of a different concentration of EGCG (25, 50,100μM) for 18 and 48 hours. Next, HIF-1α and RORC2 level expressions were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Real-Time PCR, respectively.
Results: The results showed that EGCG significantly decreased RORC2 gene expression. EGCG did not affect the level of HIF-1α.
Conclusion: However, EGCG did not influence the level of HIF-1α. Our present data has led us to conclude that EGCG could be considered as an anti-inflammatory agent may serve as an achievable therapeutic agent for MS.
Keywords: Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG); Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1-Alpha (HIF-1α); Multiple Sclerosis; RORC2.

RNA-seq profiling of white and brown adipocyte differentiation treated with epigallocatechin gallate

Due to serious adverse effects, many of the approved anti-obesity medicines have been withdrawn, and the selection of safer natural ingredients is of great interest.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the major green tea catechins, and has been demonstrated to possess an anti-obesity function by regulating both white and brown adipose tissue activity.
However, there are currently no publicly available studies describing the effects of EGCG on the two distinct adipose tissue transcriptomes. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cell derived from adipose tissue is a classic cell model for studying adipogenesis and fat accumulation.
In the current study, primary WAT and BAT SVF cells were isolated and induced to adipogenic differentiation in the presence or absence of EGCG. RNA-seq was used to determine genes regulated by EGCG and identify the key differences between the two functionally distinct adipose tissues. Taken together, we provide detailed stage- and tissue-specific gene expression profiles affected by EGCG. These data will be valuable for obesity-related clinical/basic research.

Multi-Target Approaches of Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and its Derivatives Against Influenza Viruses

Influenza viruses (INFV), the Orthomyxoviridae family, are mainly transmitted among humans, via aerosols or droplets from the respiratory secretions. However, fomites could be a potential transmission pathway. Annually, seasonal INFV infections account for 290-650 thousand deaths worldwide.
Currently, there are two classes of approved drugs to treat INFV infections, being neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and blockers of matrix-2 (M2) ion channel. However, cases of resistance have been observed for both chemical classes, reducing the efficacy of treatment.
The emergence of influenza outbreaks and pandemics calls for new antiviral molecules more effective and that could overcome the current resistance to anti-influenza drugs. In this context, polyphenolic compounds are found in various plants and these have displayed different multi-target approaches against diverse pathogens.
Among these, green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins, in special epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), have demonstrated significant activities against the two most relevant human INFV, subtypes A and lineages B.

Epigallocatechin Gallate

M21000 EpiGentek 50 mg 197.9 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate

HY-13653 MedChemExpress 100mg 124 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate

E1KS2250 EnoGene 50mg 247 EUR

Epigallocatechin gallate

E065-100MG TOKU-E 100 mg 129 EUR

Epigallocatechin gallate

E065-50MG TOKU-E 50 mg 84 EUR

Epigallocatechin gallate

GP0260-10MG Glentham Life Sciences 10 mg 58 EUR

Epigallocatechin gallate

GP0260-50MG Glentham Life Sciences 50 mg 72 EUR

Epigallocatechin gallate

GP0260-5MG Glentham Life Sciences 5 mg 46 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate

BC1001-050 GenDepot 50mg 178 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate

BC1001-100 GenDepot 100mg 232 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate

BC1001-101 GenDepot 1 g 381 EUR

Epigallocatechin Gallate

TB0850-1000 ChemNorm 8XX50mg 274 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate

1841-50 Biovision 153 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

A2600-100 ApexBio 100 mg 108 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

A2600-5.1 ApexBio 10 mM (in 1mL DMSO) 113 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

A2600-500 ApexBio 500 mg 293 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)

A2600-S ApexBio Evaluation Sample 81 EUR

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-(3''-O-methyl) gallate

HY-N2228 MedChemExpress 1mg 597 EUR

Rat Epigallocatechin Gallate(EGCG) ELISA kit

E02E0519-192T BlueGene 192 tests 1270 EUR

Rat Epigallocatechin Gallate(EGCG) ELISA kit

E02E0519-48 BlueGene 1 plate of 48 wells 520 EUR

Rat Epigallocatechin Gallate(EGCG) ELISA kit

E02E0519-96 BlueGene 1 plate of 96 wells 685 EUR
In this sense, EGCG has been found a promising multi-target agent against INFV since can act inhibiting NA, hemagglutination (HA), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and viral entry/adsorption.
In general, the lack of knowledge about potential multi-target natural products prevents an adequate exploration of them, increasing the time for developing multi-target drugs. Then, this review aimed to compile to most relevant studies showing the anti-INFV effects of EGCG and its derivatives, which could become antiviral drug prototypes in the future.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.